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ProQuest is a service (subscription) that has a searchable database of archived newspapers, most notably The New York Times.  While a private account is very expensive, most college libraries have access to this service.


NEWSPAPER ARCHIVE: NewspaperArchive is the world's largest provider of online fully searchable historic newspapers.

NEWS LIBRARY: The world's largest news archive. Complete archives of more than 200 newspapers, plus newswires, transcripts, and more.

PAPER OF RECORD: Paper of Record is an historical archive of full-page newspaper images that you can search for unique coverage of past events. The archive is created from newspaper collections on microfilm, preserving the original format of the paper, but saving you hours, even days, of research time.

Merchant shipping losses and shipwrecks:  Prior to 1741, there is no centralized source of information on shipwrecks. Information must usually be sought locally, although information on a limited number of incidents may be traceable through secondary sources such as a checklist of narratives of shipwrecks and disasters at sea to 1860, with summaries, notes and comments by Keith Huntress (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1979).

Lloyd's List:  From 1741, the date of the first surviving issue, Lloyd's List provides a daily record of information on shipping casualties received in London. As the intelligence network of Lloyd's of London grew, this source became increasingly comprehensive, not only for British vessels, and vessels wrecked in British waters, but for shipping losses worldwide.

If the name of the vessel's master is known, the Lloyd's Captains' Registers, from 1869 to 1948, recorded the fact that an inquiry had been held, the date or inquiry number, and the result insofar as it affected the master (ie no blame, certificate suspended three months from... etc). Details of inquiries can often be found in local newspapers, and the more sensational in national newspapers.

Lloyd's Register and the Mercantile Navy List:  'Posted' editions of LR's Register of Ships will often indicate the fate of a vessel, the entry being stamped 'collision', 'foundered', 'condemned' etc. sometimes with the month and year added ('3.89'). The month and year refer to the relevant quarter of the Lloyd's Register Casualty Return, published from 1890 to date. An annual index is included in the return after 1950, but no general index exists.



Advanced Wreck Diving Guide, By Gary Gentile, 1988

Shipwrecks of Virginia, by Gary Gentile, 1992

Shipwrecks of North Carolina from the Diamond Shoals North, by Gary Gentile, 1993

Shipwrecks of North Carolina from the Diamond Shoals South, by Gary Gentile, 1992

Shipwrecks of Delaware and Maryland, by Gary Gentile, 1990

Beyond Sportdiving: Exploring the Deepwater Shipwrecks of the Atlantic, By Bradley Sheard, 1991

Complete Wreck Diving, By Henry C. Keatts and Brian Skerry, 1995

Dive into History: Volume 1: Warships, By Henry C. Keatts and George C. Farr, 1990

Dive into History: Volume 2: U.S. Submarines, By Henry C. Keatts and George C. Farr, 1991

Dive into History: Volume 3: U-Boats, By Henry C. Keatts and George C. Farr, 1994

Exploring the Waters of Cape Cod, By Donald L. Ferris, 1994

Finding New England's Shipwrecks and Treasures, By Robert Ellis Cahill, 1984

Long Island Shore Diver, By Daniel Berg, 1993

New England's Legacy of Shipwrecks, By Henry C. Keatts, 1988

New England's Pirates and Lost Treasures, By Robert Ellis Cahill, 1987

New Jersey Beach Diver, By Daniel & Denise Berg, 1993

Primary Wreck Diving Guide, By Gary Gentile, 1994

Rhode Island Adventure Diving, By Marlene and Don Snyder, 1995

Rhode Island Adventure Diving II, By Marlene and Don Snyder, 1995

Shipwreck Diving, By Daniel Berg, 1991

Shipwrecks Along the Atlantic Coast, By William P. Quinn, 1988

Shipwrecks Around Boston, By William P. Quinn, 1996

Shipwrecks Around Cape Cod, By William P. Quinn, 1973

Shipwrecks Around Maine, By William P. Quinn, 1983

Shipwrecks Around New England, By William P. Quinn, 1979

Shipwrecks in New York Waters, By Paul C. Morris and William P. Quinn, 1989

Treasure Wreck: The Fortunes and Fate of the Pirate Ship Whydah, By Arthur T. Vanderbilt III, 1986

Walking the Plank: A True Adventure Among Pirates, By Stephen Kiesling, 1994

Wreck Valley Vol. II, By Danial Berg, 1990


ANDERSON, BERN. 1962 By Sea and by River: The Naval History of the Civil War. Da Capo Press, New York.

BAUER, JACK K. 1988 A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Sea's and Waterways. Studies in Maritime History, edited by William N. Still, Jr. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, South Carolina.

BEARSS, ED. 1995 River of Lost Opportunities: The Civil War on the James River 1861-1862. H.E. Howard, Inc., Lynchburg, Virginia.

BERMAN,BRUCE D. 1972 Encyclopedia of American Shipwrecks. The Mariners Press Incorporated.Boston, Massachusetts.

BLANTON, DENNIS B., DONALD W. LINEBAUGH, AND SAMUEL G. MARGOLIN. 1994 An Assessment of Virginia's Underwater Cultural Resources. Virginia Department of Historic Resources Survey and Planning Report Series No. 3. William and Mary Center for Archaeological Research, Williamsburg, Virginia.

BLUM, JOHN M., EDMUND S. MORGAN, ARTHUR M. SCHLESINGER, JR., KENNETH M. STAMPP, AND C. VANN WOODWARD. 1963 The National Experience: A History of the United States. Edited by Bruce Catton. Harcourt Brace & World, Inc., New York.

BROADWATER, JOHN. 1979 A Reconnaissance Survey and Evaluation of Potential Submerged Cultural Resources for the Interstate 664 Bridge Tunnel Water Crossing of Hampton Roads, Virginia. Submitted to the Virginia Department of Highways and Transportation. Ms. on file, Virginia Department of Historic Resources.

BROWN, ALEXANDER CROSBY. 1942 The Steamboat Pocahontas, 1893-1939. American Neptune 2(3).

CARR, LOIS GREEN. 1987 Adaptation and Settlement in the Colonial Chesapeake. St. Mary's Research Series No. 6. Historic St. Mary's, St. Mary's City, Maryland.

CROSS, CHARLES B. JR. 1976 A Navy for Virginia: A Colony's Fleet in the Revolution. Published by the Virginia Independence Bicentennial Commission, Yorktown, Virginia.

DAVIS, WILLIAM C. 1975 Duel Between the First Ironclads. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge.

ELLER, ERNEST M. (EDITOR). 1981 The Chesapeake Bay in the American Revolution. Tidewater Publishers, Centerville, Maryland.

FOWLER, WILLIAM M. JR. 1990 Under Two Flags: The American Navy in the Civil War. W.W. Norton & Company, New York.

JAMES, STEPHEN R., JR. 1994 Documentation of the Civil War Vessels C.S.S. Florida and U.S.S. Cumberland Hampton Roads, Virginia, Department of Defense Resource Management Program Demonstration Project No. 348. Prepared by Panamerican Consultants, Inc. Submitted to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, Mobile, Alabama.

LYTLE AND HOLDCAMPER. 1975 Merchant Steam Vessels of the United States 1790-1868. Reprint of 1952 edition. Edited by C. Bradford Mitchell and Kenneth Hall. De Troy Bergen

MARSHALL, DOUGLAS W., AND HOWARD H. PECKHAM. 1976 Campaigns of the American Revolution: An Atlas of Manuscript Maps. The University of Michigan Press and Hammond Incorporated, Ann Arbor, Michigan and Maplewood, New Jersey.

MARX, ROBERT F. 1971 Shipwrecks of the Western Hemisphere, 1492-1825. David McKay and Company, New York.

MORRIS, JOHN WILLIAM III. 1991 Site 44YO88, The Archaeological Assessment of the Hull Remains at Yorktown, Virginia. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of History, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina.

MORRIS, JEFFREY D.. ND The Chickahominy Shipyard, A Historical and Archaeological Investigation of a Revolutionary War Shipyard and Two Associated Shipwrecks. In progress M.A. thesis, Department of History, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina.

NATIONAL UNDERWATER MARINE AGENCY (NUMA). 1982 N.U.M.A. & U.A.J.V. James River Survey "The Last of the Confederate Navy". Ms. on file, Virginia Department of Historic Resources, Richmond, Virginia.

NAVY DEPARTMENT (ND). 1971 Civil War Naval Chronology, 1861-1865. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

NAVAL DOCUMENTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION (NDAR). 1964 Division of Naval History. Volume I. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

NESBITT, MARK. 1993 Rebel Rivers: A Guide to Civil War Sites on the Potomac, Rappahannock, York, and James. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania.

SEMMES, RAPHAEL. 1869 Memoirs of Service Afloat, during the War between the States. Kelly, Piet & Co., Baltimore.

SHARF, THOMAS J. 1887 History of the Confederate States Navy. Rogers & Sherwood, New York.

SHOMETTE, DONALD G. 1973 Shipwrecks of the Civil War: The Encyclopedia of Union and Confederate Naval Losses. Donic, Ltd., Washington D.C.

SHOMETTE, DONALD G.1982a Shipwreck Study for the Virginia Port Authority's Proposed Coal Terminal in Portsmouth. Ms. on file, Envirosphere Company, Lynnhurst, New Jersey.

SHOMETTE, DONALD G. 1982b Shipwrecks on the Chesapeake: Maritime Disasters on Chesapeake Bay and Its Tributaries, 1608-1978. Tidewater Publishers, Centreville, Maryland.

SHOMETTE, DONALD G. and ROBERT D. HASLACH. 1988 Raid on America: The Dutch Naval Campaign of 1672-1674. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, South Carolina.

STILL, WILLIAM N., JR. 1971 Iron Afloat: The Story of the Confederate Armorclads. Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville, Tennessee.

STERN, PHILIP VAN DOREN. 1962 The Confederate Navy: A Pictorial History. Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New York.

TAZEWELL, WILLIAM L. 1982 Norfolk's Waters: An Illustrated Maritime History of Hampton Roads. Windsor Publications, Inc., Woodland Hills, California.

TERRELL, BRUCE. 1986 The Wooden Gunboats of the Confederate James River Squadron. Ms. CF#38 on file, Virginia Department of Historic Resources, Richmond, Virginia.

UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOINT VENTURES (UAJV).1982 1981 NUMA/UAJV Hampton Roads Project: Search for the U.S.S. Cumberland and C.S.S. Florida. Ms. on file, Virginia Department of Historic Resources, Richmond, Virginia.

UNITED STATES OFFICE OF NAVAL WAR RECORDS. 1927 Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion. 31 Vols. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.